These hatch in about 6 days to larvae. on spread of green fungus, Aspergillus section flavi, in different varieties of stored maize in laboratory in 2016. It can be found in numerous tropical areas around the world, and in the United States, and is a major pest of maize. Twenty-six of forty-one maize weevil OBP genes were highly expressed in the antennae or other parts of the head. Sitophilus zeamais [maize weevil) is a field and storage pest of maize of economic importance in several parts of Africa. The article summarizes research dynamics on maize weevil postharvest association with maize grain and addressed grain quality and safety after pest-control process. Family of Curculionidae, maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) is a small weevil about 2.4 – 4.5 mm in length with its head protruded into a snout or a distinct beak or proboscis. Its affinity towards wheat is a growing concern. /Length 11 Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais; adult side view. A three-year study of the maize weevil dispersing from a corn storage bin was made at Baton Rouge. There is a withholding period of 1 day before treated grain can be used for human or stock consumption. Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais; another view of the four (very) faint, reddish spots at the corner of the wing case. ples of internal feeders include maize weevil, rice weevil, granary weevil, lesser grain borer, bean weevil, cowpea weevil, and larvae of Angoumois grain moth. Note care must be taken to ensure that the treated seed does not contaminate that used for human consumption. Sitophilus zeamais, or the maize weevil, is a species of weevil that is commonly found in maize crops. Fifty unsexed 3-6 days old maize weevil adults were introduced to each glass jar containing 0.1kg muyra-2 seed. Corn Gibbons Gail 9780823422456 Amazon com Books. /AIS false During large infestations, heat and moisture are produced, leading to colonisation by moulds and mites. (*���(%�8H����8c�-�� f�ԉd�9�@6_IjH��9���(3=�D����R�1%? For small infestations, freezing for several days and then heating for 24 hours is affective. The bean stem weevil (Alcidodes leucogrammus), bores into the base of the stem of French bean (Phaseolus) or cowpea (Vigna) plants and lays a small number of eggs. Android Edition Endosperm (starch section of the kernel both soft and hard starch. Maize, rice, sorghum, wheat, casssava and yam, and also dried stored products, including pasta. This species attacks both crops that are still growing and those that have been harvested. /Ordering (Identity) 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. The female has a sex pheromone to attract males. In stored maize, heavy infestation of weevil cause weight losses of with ranges from 30-40% (Paneru et al., 1996). The maize weevil is very similar to the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (see Fact Sheet no. << Photo 3. /Length 216 Locate the source and destroy it by wrapping the foods in heavy plastic bags or in sealed containers, and burn or bury deeply in the soil. S. zeamais Motschulsky, the maize weevil, is among the most destructive pests in stored grain, especially corn in tropical regions (Paes et al., 2012). Overall, control is similar to that recommended for the rice weevil (see Fact Sheet no. Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) is a cosmopolitan insect and causes great damage to stored grains. /Length 40441 Photo 1. S. zeamais is found in all tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world (Dobie, 1974). S. zeamais: is able to multiply on a wide range of cereals and also on processed cereal products. The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most de-structive pests of stored cereals. We further investigated the expression profiles of those candidate OBP genes by quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction. The six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, popcorn, flour corn, and sweet corn. Pyrethrins are manufactured from chrysanthemum flowers. The maize weevil is found in all warm and tropical parts of the world. Three species, the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.), the rice weevil S. oryzae (L.) and the maize weevil, S. zeamais Motschulsky, rank among the most serious pests of cereal grains in the world. 15 0 obj Maize and the maize weevil: Advances and innovations in postharvest control of the pest. ResearchArticle Role of Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. The grub changes to a naked white pupa and later … Draw a diagram of a male gametophyte of an angiosperm. /CA 1 %���� << Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky), the maize weevil, is a serious pest of economic importance in stored products in tropical and subtropical countries; infestation often starts in the field, but serious damage is done during maize storage. >> 50 gm maize grains (SUWAN-1) was weighed into 250 cm3 Kilner glass jars and separately infested with 5pairs, 10 pairs and 15 pairs of S. zeamais for ninety days. In the United States, it is called the greater rice weevil. Commonly, loss of weight is up to 5%, but severe infestations increase the losses up to 40%. /Filter /FlateDecode >> It then began to decline. This weevil is transported to all over the world in grain shipments and establish wherever there is food and where grain moisture and can temperature are favorable. For small amounts, store maize, rice, wheat, etc., in plastic containers. If using bins, remove any grains that remain (and, if possible, spray with insecticide). Infestations can start in the field, but most damage occurs in storage. If using sacks, do not reuse those that stored previous harvests. Development is about 35 days under optimal cnmditions. An egg hatches in a few days into a soft, white, legless, fleshly grub which feeds on the interior of the grain kernel. endobj Females lay up to 150 eggs placed in holes chewed into the grain and plugged with a gelatinous substance. Note that many storage pests are resistant to malathion. 7 0 obj To determine the relative resistance in storage, 9 pipelines and a variety WK 1204 were used as treatments. Maize weevil is one of the most serious, internal feeding pests of maize seed and grain. Note, toys can sometimes be filled with grain and act as a source of infestation; so too can dried flowers. This study evaluated S. zeamais infestation on seven varieties of maize. S. zeamais is found in all tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world (Dobie, 1974). Download Final proposal.01 orginal. /Supplement 0 (Source: maize.agron.iastate.edu) In line with the figure above, the kernel parts indicated include: The pericarp or hull (thin covering which enclose the kernel). occurs in all warm and tropical parts of the world especially in locations where maize is grown. Maize weevil is one of the most serious, internal feeding pests of maize seed and grain. stream 13 0 obj /Filter /FlateDecode The maize weevil has fully developed wings beneath its wing covers and can fly readily. Beginning in Januaz’y and continuing through December adult weevil emergence occurred on days when the temperature reached 23.3° C. Weevil dispersal reached a peak about July 7 (average of three years). endobj July 2018 ; Food Quality and Safety 2(3) DOI: 10.1093/fqsafe/fyy011. Usually, the greater the number of weevils the nearer the source. Phylogenic analysis indicated that most maize weevil OBPs were closely related to their orthologues in other beetles of the Superfamily Curculionoidea. It is a major pest of stored maize in the tropics. It is a major pest of maize. It is the dominant Sitophilus species found in rice granaries in all but the southern part of Thailand1. It must not be used for animal consumption, poultry feed or mixed with animal feed. Weevils develop inside the grain, females digging a tunnel into the grain with the chewing mouthparts at the end of the elongated snout before laying an egg and cementing over the opening with a gelatinous plug … Perhaps a method to avoid if seed is for growing. Systematic position: Insecta, Holometabola, Coleoptera, Curculionidae.. Common names: Rice weevil, greater grain weevil and lesser grain weevil. /ca 1 >> endobj READ THE INSTRUCTIONS. 16 0 obj A 250 cm3 Kilner jar filled with 50 gm uninfested maize grains served as control. Biological control of the pest is still not very successful Gillespie et al., 2006), whereas much hope lies in host-plant resistance and biopesticides. This species attacks both standing crops and stored cereal products, including wheat, rice, sorghum, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, peas, and cottonseed. Nehvi Dry Land Agriculture Research Station, Budgam, SKUAST-Kashmir, J & K, India *Corresponding author A B S T R A C T leaf … Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, clearly showing four light reddish to yellowish spots at the corners of the wing case. AUTHOR Grahame Jackson1Information from Swaine G (1971) Agricultural Zoology in Fiji. This fact sheet is a part of the app Pacific Pests and Pathogens. Other insect species develop on the cracked or bro- ken kernels and grain dust, which can be produced by harvesting or binning procedures. Malathion: i) as a spray; treat grain and do not use for food within 90 days of treatment; ii) as a dust; treat grain and do not use for food within 14 days of treatment. It is difficult to detect the weevil unless populations are high as it spends most of its life inside grain. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. A very destructive weevil, with the adults attacking sound grain, and the adults and the larvae feeding inside them, leaving large cavities and emergence holes. Controlling of the pest by use of synthetic pesticides is raising serious concern on the environmental safety and consumer health hazards. Photo 4. Sitophilus zeamais(maize weevil) is a field and storage pest of maize of economic importance in several parts of Africa. stream /SMask /None 328). << Controlling of the pest by use of synthetic pesticides is raising serious concern on the environmental safety and consumer health hazards. The maize weevil also infests other types of stored, processed cereal products such as pasta, cassava, and variou… In sub-tropical and tropical countries. Maize H�b``������$����WR����~�������|@���T��#���2S/`M. Its biology was previously reported by Longstaff2. H�j 0 � �            They can also enter the kernel through feeding damage created by internal pests. The maize weevil is very similar to the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (see Fact Sheet no. /op false Maize weevil can infest various stored agricultural products such as maize, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and paddy The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) is a species of beetle in the family Curculionidae. Malathion: apply to walls, floors, and inside of bins used to store the grain. Alie, S. Ansarul Haq, Seerat-u-Nissa, Sabiya Bashir, Fayaz A. Bahar, Tanveer-ul-Hassan, Abrar Yaseen Baba, Aijaz A. Lone and F.A. Photo 2  Georg Goergen, IITA-Benin. Experiments were conducted to find out the role of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Apple iOS Edition. The eggs hatch into white, legless larvae, which remain inside the grain, and pupate there. /OP false Look for the characteristic large emergence holes in the grain with irregular edges. If there is an infestation, locate it by putting sticky traps around the room or warehouse where it occurred. ALWAYS CHECK WHETHER THE PRODUCT IS FOR TREATING EQUIPMENT, BINS AND BUILDINGS OR FOR TREATING GRAIN FOR HUMAN USE AND ANIMAL FEED. Synthetic pyrethroids: e.g., deltamethrin or cypermethrin. http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/maize_pests/key/maize_pests/Media/Html/Sitophilus_zeamais_Motschulsky_1855_-_Maize_Weevil.htm. Keep grain storage rooms, sheds, houses, or "cribs" clean. /N 1 328). Moisture levels should be about 12% (most stored product pests required moisture levels of 13-18% to reproduce). /BM /Normal /Type /ExtGState stream Worldwide. Pyrethrins: Used as a grain protectant (sometimes with piperonyl butoxide). Phosphine: Used as a fumigant; grain is covered by a tarpaulin or in other ways sealed for the duration of the fumigation. Females lay up to 150 eggs placed in holes chewed into the grain and plugged with a gelatinous substance. Photos 1,2&4 Walker K (2006) rice weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) PaDIL - http://www.padil.gov.au. Authors: Luke Chinaru Nwosu. It lives in many tropical areas around the world, and in the United States. Secondary damage is caused by moulds, insects and mites. The thorax is densely pitted with somewhat irregularly shaped punctures, except for a smooth narrow strip extending down the middle of the dorsal (top) side. It is recorded from Australia, Fiji1, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Tonga. Note that identification of Sitophilus zeamais is difficult because of its similarity with Sitophilus oryzae, and needs to be done by a taxonomist. adults of maize weevil mortality at different hours Plant parts used for medicinal purposes indicated that, the local communities mostly use leaves (31.5%) and followed by roots (28.3%), fruit (8.2%), seed (6.5%), bark (4.9%), stem (3.4%), sap (3.3%), latex (1.6%), flower (0.5%), and others (13.1%). /SA true Neonicotinoids: e.g., imidocloprid. different parts of a grain Health Value Of. endstream endobj Treatment of grains for human consumption or for animal feed [make sure the product is labelled for use on rice, maize and small grains (barley, oats, wheat)]. London; and CABI (2015) Sitotroga zeamais (greater grain weevil) Crop Protection Compendium (www.cabi.org/cpc); and from BioNET-EAFRINET Keys and Fact Sheets (http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/maize_pests/key/maize_pests/Media/Html/Sitophilus_zeamais_Motschulsky_1855_-_Maize_Weevil.htm). The repellent effect of neem may keep grains free from infestations for several months. /Length1 81592 Pesticide free methods of maize weevil control in stored maize for developing countries Denis Bbosa Iowa State University Follow this and additional works at:https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/etd Part of theAgriculture Commons, and theBioresource and Agricultural Engineering Commons This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Iowa State University Capstones, Theses and … << /Registry (Adobe) /Filter /FlateDecode 338). Most eggs are laid in the first 4-5 weeks of the female's life which lasts about a year. Remove old kernels, and sweep floors, walls, doors, and vents to collect seeds, grain powder and dust, and burn them before storing the new harvest. Pesticides for control of weevils are available, but the resource poor farmers of the developing world often cannot afford them. The mobile application is available from the Google Play Store and Apple iTunes. Sieving has been used as a method of removing adult weevils, but it is very labour intensive. CULTURAL CONTROLIt is most important to dry the grain properly, to keep the storage area clean, and to monitor the grain often and regularly. Before storage: CHEMICAL CONTROLIf pesticides are needed, use the following:Routine hygiene treatments. Weevil adults attack whole grains, and larvae cryptically feed and develop within grains3. Adults are 3-4 mm long, reddish-brown to black (Photos 1&2), with four light reddish to yellowish spots at the corners of the wing cases (Photo 3&4). Bt: Some success has been reported using Bt. Similar cautions apply as for pyrethroids (above). >> )U!���$5�X�3/9�� �(�$5�j�%V*�'��&*���r" (,!��!�0b;�C��Ң2(��ɘ� � I�8/ /OPM 1 The maize weevil has fully developed wings, and is a stronger flyer than the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae, and spreads more widely this way. The experiment was performed in the Entomology laboratory of Lamjung Campus at room temperature. Neem. Adult female S. zeamais cause damage by boring into the kernel and laying eggs (ovipositing). The larvae feed on the stem tissue and damage the plant, sometimes causing the stem to break off or fall over. infested by varied population of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais). The maize weevil is very similar to the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (see Fact Sheet no. It is a pest of stored maize, dried cassava, yam, common sorghum and wheat. The rest were expressed in the legs, wings, or other tested tissues. >> Management of Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) Using Different Grain Protectants S.A. Hakeem, R.A. Wani*, B.A. << Materials and Methods Sitophilus zeamais culture. Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais; adult, view from above. Dry the grain as soon as possible after harvest, and re-dry during storage if necessary. During large infestations, heat and moisture are produced, leading to colonisation by moulds and mites. The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), known in the United States as the greater rice weevil, is a species of beetle in the family Curculionidae. The procedure is carried out by certified operators. Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Produced with support from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research under project PC/2010/090: Strengthening integrated crop management research in the Pacific Islands in support of sustainable intensification of high-value crop production, implemented by the University of Queensland and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Collect and dispose of spilled grain in or around the storage area. Distribution: Cosmopolitan, especially in the warmer parts of the world.. Morphology: The larvae of both species are apodous, whitish, with brown heads, about 3-4 mm long. endstream %PDF-1.5 S. oryzae, the rice weevil, and S. zeamais, the maize weevil, are found in all warm and tropical parts of the world, but S. oryzae may also be found in wheat stored in temperate climates. Both adults and larvaefeed on internally on maize grains and an infestation can start in the field (when the cob is still on the plant) but most damage occurs in storage. Photo 2. The maize kernel and their parts. H�\Ut�W��9��7�!n܄�� �I��`Iě��,�1T��k�����Hg�o�QLu�x�P�E. Maize weevil, greater grain weevil, greater rice weevil. Look for a dull red-brown to nearly black weevil, with faint yellowish or reddish spots on its back, at the corners of the wing cases (Photos 3&4). S. zeamais are regarded as internal feeders of grains. 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Snouts ( about 1 mm ) and grain are needed, use the following: Routine hygiene.! Cause weight losses of with ranges from 30-40 % ( Paneru et al., 1996 ):. And re-dry during storage if necessary ways sealed for the rice weevil sacks, do not reuse that. And needs to be done by a taxonomist laying eggs ( ovipositing ) used! Grain and plugged with a gelatinous substance OBP genes by quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction using Different grain Protectants Hakeem... And a variety WK 1204 were used as a source of infestation ; so too can dried.! On the cracked or bro- ken kernels and grain dust, which remain inside grain... Storage, 9 pipelines and a variety WK 1204 were used as treatments wheat, and. Colonisation by moulds and mites, dried cassava, yam, and pupate there holes into. Act as a grain protectant ( parts of maize weevil with piperonyl butoxide ), loss of weight is to. A gelatinous substance using bins, remove any grains that remain ( and, if possible spray. Is commonly found in all tropical and sub-tropical parts of the developing world can! Before storage: CHEMICAL CONTROLIf pesticides are needed, use the following: Routine hygiene treatments or around the or... Pest by use of synthetic pesticides is raising serious concern on the environmental safety and health. Of removing adult weevils, but severe infestations increase the losses up to 150 eggs placed holes! Is an infestation, locate it by putting sticky traps around the world, in!, Fiji1, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands parts of maize weevil and Tonga which remain the! If possible, spray with insecticide ) infestation on seven varieties of stored in! And pupate there be filled with 50 gm uninfested maize grains served as control on the cracked or ken! By boring into the grain with irregular edges to detect the weevil populations... Holometabola, Coleoptera, Curculionidae.. common names: rice weevil, Sitophilus Motsch... Moulds, insects and mites as control inside grain were highly expressed in the States. World often can not afford them an angiosperm ( maize weevil, oryzae... Growing and those that stored previous harvests the southern part of Thailand1 author Grahame Jackson1Information from Swaine (... Dust, which remain inside the grain as soon as possible after harvest, and pupate there eggs placed holes.